The Research

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Popularity Explained is based on published scientific research. Below you will find the list of articles, books, and websites used to write it. If you would like to know more about one of the sources, search the title using Google Scholar.

  • Attributions of guilt and punishment as functions of physical attractiveness and smiling. Journal of Social Psychology, 145, 687-702. Abel, M. H., & Watters, H. (2005).
  • Dynamics of inclusion and exclusion in preadolescent. Social Psychology Quarterly 58(3), 145-162. Adler, P. A., & Adler, P. (1995a).
  • Peer Power: Preadolescent Culture and Identity. Saint John, NB: Rutgers University Press. Adler, P. A., & Adler, P. (1995b).
  • Preadolescent clique stratification and the hierarchy of identity. Sociological Inquiry, 66(2), 111-142. Adler, P. A., & Adler, P. (1996).
  • Socialization to gender roles: Popularity among elementary school boys and girls. Sociology of Education, 65, 169-187. Adler, P. A., Kless, S. J. & Adler, P. (1992). –
  • Sex typing and androgyny in dyadic interaction: Individual differences in responsiveness to physical attractiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 74-86. Andersen, S. M., & Bem, S. L. (1981).
  • Social life in medical school. Student doctor network forums. Retrieved April 16th 2011 from http://forums.studentdoctor.net/archive/index.php/t-741177.html. Anonymous (2010).
  • Audience effects on self-presentation in childhood. Social Development, 11(4), 487-507. Banerjee, R. (2002).
  • Sexual peak: Socially shared cognitions about desire frequency, satisfaction in men and women. Personal Relationships, 9, 287-299. Barr, A., Bryan, A. & Kenrick, D. (2002).
  • Children‘s understanding of the self-presentational strategies of ingratiation and self-promotion. European Journal of Social Psychology, 20, 455–461. Bennett, M., & Yeeles, C. (1990).
  • What is the role of dopamine in reward: hedonic impact, reward learning, or incentive salience? Brain research Reviews, 28(3), 309-369. Berridge, K. C. & Robinson, T. E. (1998).
  • Dissecting components of reward: ‘liking’, ‘wanting’, and learning. Current Opinion in Pharmacology, 9(1), 65-73. Berridge, K. C., Robinson, T. E. & Aldridge, J. W. (2009).
  • Person perception and attribution. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag. Bierhoff, H. W. (1989)
  • Effects of perceived attractiveness and academic success on early adolescent peer popularity. The Journal or Genetic Psychology, 159(3), 337-344. Boyatzis, C. J., Baloff, P. & Durieux, C. (1998).
  • Rejected children and their friends: A shared evaluation of friendship quality? Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 46 (1), 45-70. Brendgen, M. & Little, T. D. (2000).
  • The effects of physical attractiveness and need for approval on self-disclosure. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 3, 63-66. Brundage, L. E., Derlega, V. J., & Cash, T. F. (1977).
  • Popularity as an affordance for friendship: The link between group and dyadic experience. Social Development, 5(2), 189-202. Bukowski, W. M. & Pizzamiglio, M. T., Newcomb, A. F. & Hoza, B. (1996).
  • Interpersonal attraction. Annual Review of Psychology, 24, 317-336. Byrne, D. & Griffit, W. (1973).
  • Bullying girls in and out of cliques. In S. R. Gunton (Ed.), Cliques (pp. 17-32). Detroit, MI: Greenhaven Press. Caplan, C. (2010).
  • How to win friends and influence people. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster. Carnegie, D. (1937).
  • Toward a theory of popularity. In A. H., Cillessen & D. Schwartz, L. Mayeux, (Eds.), Popularity in the Peer System (pp. 273-299). New York, NY, USA: Guilford Press. Cillessen, A. H. N. (2011).
  • From censure to reinforcement: Developmental changes in the association between aggression and social status. Child Development, 75(1), 147-163. Cillessen, A. H. N. & Mayeux, M. (2004).
  • Status and gender differences in early Adolescents‘ descriptions of popularity. Social Development 18(2), 412-426. Closson, L. M. (2008).
  • Are attractive people rewarding? Sex differences in the neural substrates of facial attractiveness. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20(6), 941-91. Cloutier, J., Heatherton, T. F., Whalen, P. J. & Kelley, W. M. (2008).
  • Dimensions and types of social status: A cross-age perspective. Developmental Psychology, 18, 557-570. Coie, J. D., Dodge, K. A., & Coppotelli, H. (1982).
  • Nonverbal behaviour and self-presentation. Psychological Bulletin, 111(2), 203-243. DePaulo, B. M. (1992).
  • Basking in reflected glory and its limits: Why adolescents hang out with popular peers. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 20(4), 942-958. Dijkstra, J. K., Cillessen, A. H., Lindenberg, S. & Veenstra, R. (2010).
  • Social competence and children’s sociometric status: The role of peer group entry strategies. Journal of Developmental Psychology, 29(3), 309-336. Dodge, K. A., Schlundt, D. C., Schocken, I., Delugach, J. D. (1983).
  • Physical attractiveness, social connectedness, and individuality: An autophotographic study. Journal of Social Psychology, 142, 25-32. Dollinger, S. J. (2002).
  • Effects of manipulated prestige-car ownership on both sex attractiveness ratings. The British Journal of Psychology, 101, 69-80. Dunn, M. J. & Searle, R. (2010).
  • Behavioural differences in sociometric status groups in a nursery school. Child Development, 25, 103-111. Dunnington, M. H. (1957).
  • The role of attitudinal similarity and perceived acceptance evaluation in interpersonal attraction. The Journal of Psychology, 109, 133-136. Erwin, P, G. (1981).
  • Lust, attraction, attachment: Biology and evolution of the three primary emotion systems for mating, reproduction and parenting. Journal of Sex Education and Therapy, 25(1), 96-105. Fisher, H. (2000).
  • Anatomy of Love: A natural history or monogamy, adultery, and divorce. New York, NY: W. W. Norton. Fisher, H. (1993).
  • Defining the brain systems of lust, romantic attraction, and attachment. Archives of Sexual Behaviour, 31(5), 413-419. Fisher, H., Aron, A., Mashek, D., Li, M. & Brown, L. L. (2002).
  • The once over: Can you trust first impressions? Psychology Today.com. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/200407/the-once-over?page=2. Flora, C. (2004).
  • Shyness and physical attractiveness in mixed-sex dyads. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,61, 35-49. Garcia, S., Stinson, L., Ickes, W., Bissonnette, V. & Briggs, S. R. (1991).
  • What is good is beautiful. Sociometry, 40(1), 85-90. Gross, A. E. & Crofton, C. (1977).
  • The development of adolescents‘ emotional stability and general self-concept: The interplay of parents, peers, and gender. International Journal of Disability, Development, and Education, 50, 77–91. Hay, I. & Ashman, A. F. (2003).
  • The effects of physical attractiveness on job-related outcomes: A meta-analysis of experimental studies. Personnel Psychology, 56, 431-462. Hosoda, M., Stone-Romero, E., & Coats, G. (2003).
  • Similarity and attractiveness in social perception: Differentiating between biases for the self and the beautiful. Self and Identity, 2, 137-152. Horton, R. S. (2003).
  • Peer Groups and Children’s Development. Malde, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. Howe, C. (2010).
  • Physical appearance cues and interpersonal attraction in children. Child Development, 45, 305-310. Kleck, R. E., Richardson , S. A. & Ronald, L. (1974).
  • Sociometry as a method for investigation peer relationships: What does it really measure? Educational Research, 47(1), 127-144. Kosir, K. & Pecjak, S. (2005).
  • The interactive effects of counsellor gender, physical attractiveness and status on client self-disclosure. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 84-90. Kunin, C. C. & Rodin, M. J. (1982).
  • Children‘s perceptions of popular and unpopular peers: A multi-method assessment. Developmental Psychology, 38(5), 635–647. LaFontana, K. M. & Cillessen, A. H. N. (2002).
  • Developmental changes in the priority of perceived status in childhood and adolescence. Social Development, 19(1), 130-147. LaFontana, K. M., Cillessen, A. H. N. (2009).
  • Dominance, attention, and affiliation in a preschool group: A nine-month longitudinal study. Ethology and Sociobilogy, 4(2), 55–67. LaFreniere, P. & Charlesworth, W. R. (1983).
  • What is beautiful is good because what is beautiful is desired: Physical attractiveness stereotyping as projection of interpersonal goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36 (3), 339-353. Lemay, E. P., Clark, M. S. & Greenberg, A. (2010).
  • Self-presentational goals, self-monitoring, and nonverbal behaviour. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 79(4), 505-518. Levine, S. P. & Feldman, R. S. (1997).
  • A three-level approach to attraction: Toward an understanding of Pair Relatedness. In T. L. Huston (Ed.), Foundations of interpersonal attraction (pp. 99-120). New York, NY: Academic Press. Levinger, G. (1974).
  • The role of athlete as contributor to peer status in school-age and adolescent females in the United States: From pre-title IX to 2000 and beyond. Social Psychology of Education, 8, 223-244. Lindstrom, W. A. & Lease, M. A. (2005).
  • A symbolic interactionist approach to attraction. In T. L. Huston (Ed.), Foundations of interpersonal attraction (pp. 217-231). New York, NY: Academic Press. McCall, G. J. (1974).
  • The effects of physical attractiveness on gaining access to alcohol: When social policy meets social decision making. Addiction, 92, 597-600. McCall, M. (1997).
  • Motivation and personality. New York, NY: Harper and Row. Maslow, A. H. (1987).
  • Interpersonal attraction and help volunteering as a function of physical attractiveness. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 89, 125-131. Mims, P. R., Hartnett, J. J. & Nay, W. R. (1975).
  • Human nonverbal courtship behaviour—A brief historical review. Journal of Sex Research, 47(2-3), 171-180. Moore, M. M. (2010).
  • Children’s friendship relations: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 117(2), 306-347. Newcomb, A. F. & Bagwell, C. L. (2009).
  • Children‘s peer relations: A meta-analytic review of popular, rejected, Neglected, controversial, and average sociometric status. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 99-128. Newcomb, A. F., Bukowski, W. M. & Pattee, L. (1993).
  • Faces differing in attractiveness elicit corresponding affective responses. Cognition and emotion, 25(1), 140-148. Principe, C. P. & Langlois, J. H. (2011).
  • Physical attractiveness, age, and sex as determinants of reactions to resumes. Social Behaviour & Personality, 14, 103-112. Quereshi, M. Y. & Kay, J. P. (1986).
  • Reactions to eye contact initiated by physically attractive and unattractive men and women. Social Behavior and Personality, 12, 103-109. Rall, M., Greenspan, A. & Neidich, E. (1984).
  • Facial attractiveness as a moderator of the association between social and physical aggression and popularity in adolescents. Journal of School Psychology, 48, 313–333. Rosen, L. H. & Underwood, M. K. (2010).
  • The effect of physical attractiveness comparison on choice of partners. Journal of Social Psychology, 135, 153-165. Rotem, K. (1995).
  • Likeable versus popular: Distinct implications for adolescent adjustment. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 30 (4), 305–314. Sandstrom, M. J. & Cillessen A. H. N. (2006).
  • What is beautiful is loved: Physical attractiveness in love relationships in a representative sample. Social Behavior & Personality, 28, 207-219. Sangrador, J. L. & Yela, C. (2000).
  •  Developmental Psychology: Childhood and Adolescence (Third Canadian Ed.). Scarborough, ON: Nelson. Shaffer, D. R., Kipp, K., Wood, E. & Willoughby, T. (2010).
  • An investigation of relative preference for consistency motivation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 3(3), 271-280. XII. Shaw, J. I. & Skolnick, P. (1973).
  • Friendship in childhood and adulthood: Lessons across the life span. Int. J. Aging and Human Development, 51(1), 31-51. Sherman, A. M., deVries, B. & Lansford, J. E. (2000).
  • Aggression and social status: The moderating roles of sex and peer-valued characteristics. Aggressive Behaviour, 32, 396-408. Vaillancourt, T. & Hymel, S. (2006).
  •  Peer acceptance and social behavior during childhood and adolescence: How important are appearance, athleticism, and academic competence? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 33(4), 303-311. Vannatta, K., Gartstein, M. A., Zeller, M., & Noll, R. B. (2009).
  • Children‘s differentiation between ingratiation and self-promotion. Social development, 16 (4), 758-776. Watling, D. & Banerjee, R. (2007).
  • Physical attractiveness, body image, and women‘s sexual self-schema. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 567-581. Wiederman, M. W. & Hurst, S. R. (1997).
  •  How to be popular. Retrieved from Wikihow April 6th 2011 http://www.wikihow.com/Be-Popular. wikihow (n.d.)
  • Helping behaviour and physical attractiveness. Journal of Social Psychology, 104, 313-314. Wilson, D. W. (1978).
  • It‘s high school—with scalpels. JeffreyMD. Retrieved April 16th 2011 from http://www.jeffreymd.com/?s=popular. W. J. (2009).
  • Effects of physical attractiveness on evaluations of a male employee‘s allegation of sexual harassment by his female employer. The Journal of Social Psychology, 144(2), 207-217. Wuensch, K. L. & Moore, C. H. (2004)

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